Monomorium pharaonis (Pharoah Ants)

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Monomorium pharaonis, the Pharoah Ant, is one of the most invasive species, found across tropical regions and heated buildings in temperate regions (Canada included!) Being a tramp species, Monomorium pharoanis is one of the most hardy species, being able to survive in almost all conditions. Just remember to keep them contained! It is important to note that Pharoah ants can establish themselves even in Canadian households, so please ensure to contain the ants so you don't get any extra pests.

Monomorium pharaonis is an inbreeding supercolonial species, and a colony of these ants will produce more queens given proper conditions.

As far as we know, we are the only legal suppliers of the species, as it is illegal to import them without an import permit.

Scientific Name: Monomorium pharaonis
Common Name: Pharaoh ant
Taxonomy: Family: Formicidae | Subfamily: Myrmicinae | Genus: Monomorium | Species: M. pharaonis
Care Difficulty: The species Monomorium pharaonis is an intermediate level species.
Distribution: Monomorium pharaonis can be found in many places in Canada typically within heated building and greenhouses. This invasive species has recorded records within British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. Native to most parts of Africa, this species has been wide spread throughout the world by human transportation. This notorious invasive species can be found throughout North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia.
Habitat: Monomorium pharaonis typically prefers to nest indoors. They can offten found within (but not limited to) Heat houses, Buildings, and Greenhouses.
Colony form: This species is primarly polygynous often living with tens to hundreds of queens.
Queen: The size of queens in this species ranges from 3.6-5 mm long.
Worker: Worker sizes of the species Monomorium pharaonis ranges from 1.5-2 mm long.
Soldier: There are no soldiers in the species Monomorium pharaonis.
Males: Males have been recorded to be around the same size of workers. Males of the species Monomorium pharaonis is black in colour typically around 2mm in size.
Nutrition: Monomorium pharaonis is very non picky when it comes to food. They will easily take most carbohydrates without issue, this includes: honey, sugar water, honey water, and sunburst ant nectar. When it comes to proteins, it is recommended to serve this species pre killed food items as the workers will have issues taking down live food due to their small size. Monomorium pharaonis will take almost any protein source, this incluides dog food, fish food, any meats, and most feeder insects. Some feeder insect recommendations would be fruit flies, mealworms, superworms, crickets, surinam roaches, and discoid roaches.
Air humidity: The species Monomorium pharaonis can live in dry conditions without issue. This species can often be found living in areas with little humidity such as behind baseboards, wall voids, and typically anywhere thats dark and warm. The general humidity range required for this species can be anywhere from 30-80%. A normal test tube setup will provide this species with the adequate amount of humidity.
Temperature: This species typically prefers warmer conditions. Colonies will do fine in room tempreture but will do better in warm conditions. Monomorium pharaonis will be able to survive any where from 15-35C. Optimal conditions for fast growth would be around 27-30C.
Hibernation: Monomorium pharaonis does not require hibernation. Colonies can grow all year long without issue. Hibernating Monomorium pharaonis can lead to the death of the colony or the loss of many workers/queens.
Nesting Habits: Monomorium pharaonis lives indoors such as greenhouses, heated building, and houses. Inside these structures you can find them living in anywhere but you are most likely to find them in damp areas with heat.
Kind of Formicaria: Monomorium pharaonis are typically extremely hard to house due to their tendancy to escape things. Due to their small size, any formicarium with even the smallest gaps are not recommended. Typically most arylic nests will work but some have had success with keeping them in the Tarheel Ants Inception Chamber. Any nest from the Buckeye Myrmecology line should be able to contain Monomorium pharaonis.
Formicaria size: This species is extremely fast growing due to their ability to inbreed but because of their small workers size, any small nest from the Buckeye Myrmecology line will work fine. Due to their frequent inbreeding, it is recommended to get the next size up from the Buckeye Myrmecology line when you see all chambers adequately full.
Description: Monomorium pharaonis is an intermediate level species. Care wise this species is extremely easy because of how non picky they can be with almost anything. Containment of this species is very hard. It is recommended to use an airtight outworld with fluon to prevent escapes. As for nest types, it is recommended to use a Buckeye Myrmecology nest as they are able to contain them relatively well. Colonies of the species Monomorium pharaonis can inbreed within the nests which often results in colonies having hundreds of queens if the correct care is provided. This species is extremely fast growing because of their ability to have multiple queens and their fast egg to worker growth rate (3-4 weeks). This species is good for relatively experienced ant keepers who are looking for a fast growing and easy to care for species.
Development: Monomorium pharaonis can both have nuptial flight and/or inbreed within the nest. Nuptial flights for the species Monomorium pharaonis are often random with no real schedule. In captivity colonies will inbreed within the nest without issue.
Offering quantity: Queen + 5-10 workers | 2 Queens + 10-20 workers | 3 Queens + 15-30 workers | 5 Queens + 30-50 workers

Test tube inserts are upgrades to the test tube setups provided. If purchased, they come with a dark hood to lower light levels for the colony, an insert which provides a living space, and a feeding insert to provide food for the colony.

Ungrouted inserts are a blank plastic insert which helps provide a more suitable space for the ants to grip (as opposed to glass tubes), while grouted inserts are bedded with a substrate which helps distribute humidity more evenly throughout the test tube, and helps certain ants create their cocoons more easily. Overall, grouted inserts are more comfortable for the ants.

You will NOT need an insert for colonies in test tubes, but it does help for certain species. IF you are moving the ants into a nest immediately, do NOT get a test tube insert.

This species comes from more tropical areas than Canada, and are not cold-tolerant. Thus, we will not ship them in the winter

Just a warning, we will NOT ship live ants into the US unless the receiver has a permit. If such an order is made, it will be refunded, minus a 10% processing fee and restocking fee

This product is from Canada Ant Colony. The full catalogue, including all variants, can be found at



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